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Spirtual Common Sense Real Talk

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Ryan Watson
Ryan Watson


As you can see, the Collection class allows you to chain its methods to perform fluent mapping and reducing of the underlying array. In general, collections are immutable, meaning every Collection method returns an entirely new Collection instance.


Collections are "macroable", which allows you to add additional methods to the Collection class at run time. The Illuminate\Support\Collection class' macro method accepts a closure that will be executed when your macro is called. The macro closure may access the collection's other methods via $this, just as if it were a real method of the collection class. For example, the following code adds a toUpper method to the Collection class:

For the majority of the remaining collection documentation, we'll discuss each method available on the Collection class. Remember, all of these methods may be chained to fluently manipulate the underlying array. Furthermore, almost every method returns a new Collection instance, allowing you to preserve the original copy of the collection when necessary:

WarningLike most other collection methods, map returns a new collection instance; it does not modify the collection it is called on. If you want to transform the original collection, use the transform method.

Collections also provide support for "higher order messages", which are short-cuts for performing common actions on collections. The collection methods that provide higher order messages are: average, avg, contains, each, every, filter, first, flatMap, groupBy, keyBy, map, max, min, partition, reject, skipUntil, skipWhile, some, sortBy, sortByDesc, sum, takeUntil, takeWhile, and unique.

For example, imagine your application needs to process a multi-gigabyte log file while taking advantage of Laravel's collection methods to parse the logs. Instead of reading the entire file into memory at once, lazy collections may be used to keep only a small part of the file in memory at a given time:

Almost all methods available on the Collection class are also available on the LazyCollection class. Both of these classes implement the Illuminate\Support\Enumerable contract, which defines the following methods:

These successive pairs are useful for finding the first differences between values. For example, successive pairs of IEnumable can be used to produce IEnumerable. Similarly, sampled bool values of a button can be interpretted into events like NotPressed/Clicked/Held/Released. Those events can then drive calls to delegate methods. Here's an example:

A property object has getter, setter,and deleter methods usable as decorators that create acopy of the property with the corresponding accessor function set to thedecorated function. This is best explained with an example:

If the second argument is omitted, the super object returned is unbound. Ifthe second argument is an object, isinstance(obj, type) must be true. Ifthe second argument is a type, issubclass(type2, type) must be true (thisis useful for classmethods).

Also note that, aside from the zero argument form, super() is notlimited to use inside methods. The two argument form specifies thearguments exactly and makes the appropriate references. The zeroargument form only works inside a class definition, as the compiler fillsin the necessary details to correctly retrieve the class being defined,as well as accessing the current instance for ordinary methods.

Laravel Eloquent uses Collections to return the results. Collections contains very useful methods that makes them very powerful and helpful to use. You can filter them, modify them and much more with them very conveniently. We will be looking at laravel collection methods in this tutorial.

Collections are not only limited to eloquent results but can be used separately. Eloquent results uses collections. You can simply create a collection by passing an array to collect helper function. All of the next collection methods listed below are applicable to both the eloquent collections and collections itself as well.

When we apply helper methods on eloquent collections, they do not query the database. All the results that we want to get from the database are first taken and then we use collection methods to filter and modify them without any querying to the database.

You can get big difference in compression ratio for different sorting methods, if dictionary size is smaller than total size of files. If there are similar files in different folders, the sorting "by type" can provide better compression ratio in some cases.

Note: There are some files (for example, executable files), that are compressed with additional filter. 7-Zip can't use different compression methods in one solid block, so 7-zip can create several groups of files that don't follow "by name" order in "qs-" mode, but files inside each group are still sorted by name in "qs-" mode.

Most other alternatives bundle unzip into a larger collection of functions,chainable methods, or monkey patches on Array.This package is released in the spirit of small modules, coherent withother polymorphic operator packages.

Python possesses an extensive collection of in-built methods, one of which is the zip() function. Using the zip() function, you can create an iterator object containing tuples (know more about tuple at "3 Ways to Convert Lists to Tuple in Python"). It can be helpful to think of the zip() function as combining two or more lists (or other iterable objects) into an object containing ordered tuples from the lists. The below example shows how the zip() function can easily merge two lists in python without any extra effort.

To summarize, lists are the most used data structure in python language and hence face the difficult situation to zip the elements while programming. In this article, we studied various methods to zip the elements of two lists and you can use any of them according to the different situations you face while coding the program. However, the zip() function is highly used and the most recommended method to zip the lists faster and efficiently.

The following Underscore methods transform their predicates through _.iteratee: countBy, every, filter, find, findIndex, findKey, findLastIndex, groupBy, indexBy, map, mapObject, max, min, partition, reject, some, sortBy, sortedIndex, and uniq

Collections can be iterated and/or transformed into new collections with theeach() and map() methods. The each() method will not create a newcollection, but will allow you to modify any objects within the collection:

Using closures for collection methods is great when the work to be done is smalland focused, but it can get messy very quickly. This becomes more obvious whena lot of different methods need to be called or when the length of the closuremethods is more than just a few lines.

There are also cases when the logic used for the collection methods can bereused in multiple parts of your application. It is recommended that youconsider extracting complex collection logic to separate classes. For example,imagine a lengthy closure like this one:

The operators and other methods which are commonly used in queriesare added through implicit conversions defined inExtensionMethodConversions. The actual methods can be found inthe classes AnyExtensionMethods, ColumnExtensionMethods,NumericColumnExtensionMethods, BooleanColumnExtensionMethods andStringColumnExtensionMethods(cf. ExtensionMethods).

Collection values are represented by the Query class (a Rep[Seq[T]]) which contains manystandard collection methods like flatMap, filter, take and groupBy. Due to the twodifferent component types of a Query (lifted and plain, e.g. Query[(Rep[Int), Rep[String]),(Int, String), Seq]), the signatures for these methods are very complex but the semantics areessentially the same as for Scala collections.

In addition to the usual applicative join operators supported by relational databases(which are based off a cross join or outer join), Slick also has zip joinswhich create a pairwise join of two queries. The semantics are again the sameas for Scala collections, using the zip and zipWith methods:

Updates are performed by writing a query that selects the data to update andthen replacing it with new data. The query must only return raw columns (nocomputed values) selected from a single table. The relevant methods forupdating are defined inUpdateExtensionMethods.

Many of the methods in here are duplicative with those in the Traversable hierarchy, but they are duplicated for a reason: the implicit conversion tends to leave one with an Iterable in situations where one could have retained an Option.

When overriding the equals or hashCode methods, it is important to ensure that their behavior is consistent with reference equality. Therefore, if two objects are references to each other (o1 eq o2), they should be equal to each other (o1 == o2) and they should hash to the same value (o1.hashCode == o2.hashCode).

Note: many collection methods will not work on collections of infinite sizes. The typical failure mode is an infinite loop. These methods always attempt a traversal without checking first that hasDefiniteSize returns true. However, checking hasDefiniteSize can provide an assurance that size is well-defined and non-termination is not a concern.

To set up shipping in WooCommerce, you first set up shipping zones, then add methods to those zones, and lastly, rates to your methods. You can create as many zones as you like, and add multiple methods and rates to each zone.

Locations not covered by your other zones is used for customers who do not match any of the custom zones you add. Adding methods to this zone is completely optional, depending on your needs.

You can also control how shipping methods are ordered in the cart page, in the same screen. All the selected shipping methods will be sorted in the cart page, in the same order you followed, to arrange them in this screen. 041b061a72


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